HTML 4.0.1, XHTML 1.0 ( W3C standards ):
HTML ( Hyper Text Mark-up Language ) is the language used to publish hyper text on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML ( Standard Generalized Mark-up Language ), and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools, from simple plain text editors - you type it in from scratch - to sophisticated WYSIWYG ( What You See Is What You Get ) authoring tools. HTML uses tags such as <h1> and </h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs ( <p> and </p> ), lists ( <ul> and </ul> or <ol> and </ol> ), hyper text links ( <a href="css.html"> and </a> ) etc.
XHTML ( Extensible Hyper text Mark-up Language ) is a family of current and future document types and modules that reproduce, subset, and extend HTML, reformulated in XML ( Extensible Mark-up Language ). XHTML family document types are all XML-based, and ultimately are designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents ( like browsers and data base systems etc. ). XHTML is the successor of HTML and is used to bridge the gap between HTML and XML.
Historical progress of HTML:
Proposal ( 1989 ), Web launched ( CERN 1991 release WWW, SGML used, browsers; Cello, Viola, MidasWWW ), First HTML version ( 1992 ), 1.0 ( 1993, browser, NCSA's Mosaic ), 2.0 ( 1994, browser, Netscape, W3C formed ), HTML+ Proposal ( 1994 ), 3.0 ( extended version of HTML+, not standardized ), 3.2 ( the standard all browsers support ), 4.0 ( attempt to clean up HTML and move to an open standard ), 4.0.1 ( major bug fix release, preparation for XML support ).
More information on HTML and XHTML can be found at the W3C web page [http://www.w3.org/Markup/].
CSS 1.0, CSS 2.0 ( W3C standards ):
CSS 1 ( 1996 ) is a simple style sheet mechanism that allows authors and readers to attach style ( e.g. font, colors and spacing ) to HTML documents.
More information about CSS ( Cascading Style Sheets ) can be found on the page About CSS.
More information on CSS 1 can be found at the W3C web page [http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS1-961217.html].
CSS 2 ( 1998 ) is a style sheet language that allows authors and users to attach style ( e.g. fonts, spacing and aural cues ) to structured documents ( e.g. HTML documents and XML applications ). By separating the presentation style of documents from the content of documents, CSS 2 simplifies Web authoring and site maintenance. CSS 2 builds on CSS 1.
More information on CSS 2 can be found at the W3C web page [http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/cover.html].
Watchfire's Bobby 4.0.1, Section 508, Disabilities Discrimination Act ( W3C WCAG, USA, and UK ):
Bobby is an application that test's a web site for W3C WCAG ( Web Content Access Guidelines ) compliance. Watchfire also provides compliance checking for US Government Section 508 Standards and the UK's Disabilities Discrimination Act.
These standards are meant to help web designers build web sites that reduce as much as possible the difficulty people with disabilities have at accessing information.
Watchfire's Bobby approval system was transfered to WAVE (web accessibility evaluation tool). More information about WAVE approval can be found on WAVE's web site at [http://wave.webaim.org/].
Last updated: Mar 4, 2011